Further reading 

If you are interested in learning more about linguistics and Southern American English, the following books, websites, and videos provide further information. 

Gazetteer of Southern Vowels: This website uses DASS data to compare speakers' vowel qualities in different dimensions by demographic information.

English in the Southern United States (edited by Stephen Nagle and Sara Sanders): A compilation of essays about Southern American English tying together academic studies of Southern Speech with accessible language and a wide range of topics. Essays include "Shakespeare in the coves and hollows? Toward a history of Southern English" and "Urbanization and the evolution of Southern American English." This book is great for reading a broad discussion of SAE through a linguistic lens. 

"The Persistence of Southern American English" (Guy Bailey and Jan Tillery): While this article uses some basic linguistic language, it does a great job of tying aspects of Southern American English to southern culture, as well as explains when some of the features mentioned on the Phonetics and Phonology page have lasted so long came into being, and why they have lasted so long. 

Whistlin' Dixie (Robert Hendrickson): A dictionary of Southern American English terms and phrases

The Ling Space (Moti Lieberman): A fantastic YouTube channel with short but detailed and entertaining videos about linguistics, including overviews of syntactical concepts, sociolinguistics, and phonetic and phonological features. 

Langfocus (Paul Jorgensen): Another illustrative Youtube channel that gives an general overview of dozens of languages, tying in history, phonetics, alphabets, morphology, and syntax. 

The Language and Life Project (NC State Linguistics Department): Beginning as a community outreach program with NC State, the Language and Life Project creates documentaries, audio recordings, and podcasts about linguistics communities within the United States, including dialects like Appalachian English and African-American Language! Video clips from these documentaries can be found on the website. 

Do You Speak American? (PBS): This PBS three-part documentary attempts to catalogue different dialects in America and asks linguists to weigh on how they are perceived and how those perceptions are changing. All three parts can be found on Youtube.

Oxford English Dictionary Updates: A webpage that updates with new words and definitions each time they are entered into the Oxford English Dictionary. 


References used in this website 

  • Abramson, R., & Haskell, J. (2006). Encyclopedia of Appalachia (First ed.). Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
  • Clark, A., & Hayward, N. M. (2013). Talking Appalachian : voice, Identity, and Community. University Press of Kentucky. 
  • Conradt, S. (2015, December 10). How the Grand Ole Opry Got Its Name. Retrieved from http://mentalfloss.com/article/72246/how-grand-ole-opry-got-its-name.
  • Duke University. (2019). Linguistics Program. Retrieved from https://linguisticsprogram.duke.edu/.
  • Green, L. J. (2002). African American English : A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Kretzschmar, W., Bounds, P., Hettel, J., Coats, S., Pederson, L., Opas-Hänninen, L. L., … Seppänen, T. (2012, February 15). Digital Archive of Southern Speech. Retrieved from https://catalog.ldc.upenn.edu/LDC2012S03.
  • Montgomery, M., & Hall, J. S. (2004). Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English. University of Tennessee Press. 
  • Mufwene, S. S. (1998). African-American English : structure, history, and use. Routledge.
  • Nagle, S. J., & Sanders, S. L. (2003). English in the southern United States. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2003. 
  • Oxford English Dictionary. (2019, June). Updates to the OED. Retrieved from https://public.oed.com/updates/.
  • Reaser, J., Wilbanks, E., Wojcik, K., & Wolfram, W. (2018). Language variety in the new South : contemporary perspectives on change and variation. The University of North Carolina Press. 
  • Reed, P. (2014). Inter- and Intra-Generational /aɪ/ Monophthongization, Indexicality, and Southern Appalachian Identity. Southern Journal of Linguistics, 38(1), 159–194.
  • Renwick, M. E., Olsen, M., Olsen, R. M., & Stanley, J. A. (2017). Transcription and forced alignment of the digital archive of southern speech. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141(5), 3981–3981. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4989090
  • Schneider, E. W., & Kortmann, B. (2004). A handbook of varieties of English: a multimedia reference tool. Mouton de Gruyter. 
  • Sidnell, J. (n.d.). African American Vernacular English. Retrieved from https://www.hawaii.edu/satocenter/langnet/definitions/aave.html.
  • Stanley, J. (2019, April 25). Gazetteer of Southern Vowels. Retrieved from http://lap3.libs.uga.edu/u/jstanley/vowelcharts/.
  • Thomas, E. (2005). Rural Southern white accents. The Americas and the Caribbean, 87–1114. doi: 10.1515/9783110208405.1.87
  • Thomas, E. R. (2007), Phonological and Phonetic Characteristics of African American Vernacular English. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1: 450-475. doi:10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00029.x
  • Withgott, M. M., & Chen, F. R. (1993). Computational models of American speech. Center for the Study of Language and Information. 
  • Wolfram, W., & Christian, D. (1976). Appalachian speech. Center for Applied Linguistics. 
  • Wolfram, W. (2004). The grammar of urban African American Vernacular English.


Website developed by Bailey Bigott (UGA BA 2020, MA 2021)